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Downtown Revitalization - Project Detail

Year End Fundraising Plan for Main Street Organizations—Three Blog posts

The holidays are close and virtually all Main Street organizations have set their promotional calendar for their district into action by now.  But have you spent an equal amount of time gearing up for end of year fundraising?

Every Main Street organization should be reaching out for year-end gifts.  Look to current donors and people already on your mailing list and email lists for support.  Make your Facebook Fans and Twitter followers know about your plans for the coming year that you will be able to accomplish with their financial support.

In three blog posts over this week, we will supply a road map for downtown organizations to expand (or create) an end of year fundraising strategy.  We will offer suggestions for a complete (and also a mini) campaign, so that you can pick elements of this strategy depending on your time and volunteer resources over the next six weeks.

So, why bother asking for gifts before December 31?  

According to some of the leading nonprofit fundraising authorities, your organization could be raising up to 40% of its donations during the last six weeks of the year, if you use several fundraising channels to connect to your donors, according to a 2011 report by Charity Navigator.[1]  Their report asked for giving trends from 110 charities and 550 donors, and they asked, “what percentage of annual contributions from individuals does your charity receive at year-end (roughly speaking Thanksgiving to New Years)?"  The answers literally ranged from 0% to 100%.  But on average, these charities receive 41% of their annual contributions in the last few weeks of the year!”[2]

We reviewed the extensive literature on year-end giving in the last several weeks, and compiled some compelling statistics. 

 

Ten Fundraising Facts for Year End Fundraising.

  1. In 2011, an estimated ­­­­­$298.4 billion was raised from Americans giving to charity. – Giving USA[3]
  2. Giving increased just 0.9 percent after inflation in 2011 from 2010 when giving was $291 billion. – Giving USA[4]
  3. Seventy three percent (73%) of all gifts came from individuals, same as in 2010. -- Giving USA[5]
  4. The average person makes 24% of their annual donations between Thanksgiving and New Years.  -- Center on Philanthropy[6]
  5. While a large majority of donations are still made by check (79 percent), online fundraising is the fastest growing donation channel. – Association of Fundraising Professionals[7]
  6. Online fundraising grew 15% from previous year. -- The 2011 Convio Online Marketing Nonprofit Benchmark Index™ Study[8]
  7. Online giving continues to grow fastest for smaller organizations. Organizations with 10,000 or fewer email addresses grew by 26.7% in median revenue, similar to 2010’s growth.-- 2011 Convio Study
  8. Recurring giving (monthly or quarterly pledges) is a major driver of giving over time and should be strongly encouraged in the giving experience.— Network for Good[9]
  9. A third (33%) of December's donations happen on the 31st of the month—Network for Good
  10. The peak giving time on December 31 is from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. in each time zone—Network for Good

 

End of year fundraising is clearly worth your time, and it does not have to stress you out. The purpose of these blog posts is to get you to do something in the next two months so that you can harvest at least a portion of these gifts for your own downtown organization.

In the next installment of this blog series to be published on Wednesday, we will discuss the following Top Ten Tips for year-end giving for downtown organizations. We will give advice about technical and implementation issues on these topics.

 

  1. Set a goal, create a campaign theme, think multi-channel giving,
  2. Clean up your mailing lists,
  3. Take online gifts. Where is your website’s Donate Now button?
  4. Test your donation page now,
  5. Revise your giving levels, ask for recurring gifts, create simple forms,
  6. Create compelling stories, photos and letters and the weekly countdown,
  7. Thank you, thank you, thank you,
  8. Automate thanks and tweet about gifts,
  9. Reinforce your campaign with traditional PR, Matching Gifts and Donor lists, and
  10. Don’t take Christmas week off!

 

Our final blog post in this series, to be published Friday, will share a sample fundraising calendar and a plan to use during November and December with some suggested dates for sending direct mail letters, email communications, e-newsletters to your current contributors and others.  We will post the entire series for you on our blog today if you want to get an early jump on the entire series.

What other tips can you think of to raise more money at the end of the year?  Share your thoughts in the comments section below, and share this series with other people in your networks.

 

 

Top Ten Steps for Year-End Giving for Main Street Organizations—Second in a series


 

Year-end giving is a potential gold mine for downtown organizations if you can dedicate some time in the next two weeks to organize a small campaign.  The following tips are meant to help you upgrade an existing effort or to create a new one. 

A multi-channel campaign, using direct mail, email, e-newsletters, phone calls and personal solicitation will yield the best results.  But you could pick one or two channels and apply this same methodology to seek support from your existing members, donors and stakeholders. Most email efforts will cost pennies to implement.  Direct mail costs will be more, but are still inexpensive. As we all know, the personal touch with a one on one conversation is still the best way to raise funds at any time of year.

We offer ten steps,  in more or less logical order.  Get your Organization Committee volunteers and board members involved now to create a profitable year-end fundraising campaign. Even if you decide to do a very simple campaign in the final week of the year, resolve to put a campaign in place now and improve on it next year. Good luck and let us know of your success.

 

A.    Set a goal, create a simple campaign theme and think multi-channel giving


  1. Set a realistic goal—Create an admirable, achievable but stretch goal for this year-end campaign.  Since end of year gifts are over and above regular donations (this campaign is not for renewals), you will not hear from everyone. But the spirit of the season is in your favor. There is more than enough evidence to show that Americans make charitable donations around the holidays.  Create a specific monetary goal and donor (number of people) goal and start work!
  2. Compile a list of eight good compelling stories and photos—Identify stories about the impact your organization is making on downtown. They don’t have to be long, about two or three paragraphs at most. Plan to use one story per message over the course of the six-week campaign. This is the time to tout your achievements: declining vacancies, the positive memories you create from your special events year round, new business opening, buildings restored or farmers selling healthy food at your weekly market. Your stories should focus on people you help and memories you create for residents.  Highlight one or two new merchants and why they located to your downtown in a story or two.  Tell about family fun at events you host. Photos of happy people having happy times in downtown are the most effective. These will be the basis for your letters and e-newsletter solicitations.
  3. Think multi-channel—We understand from our research that using multiple channels: email, direct mail, phone calls, Facebook and Twitter, will bring in more money than relying on one channel alone. Coordinate any direct mail with an online campaign that reinforces the message using your website, e-newsletter and/or social media. Make sure you mention the website donation page in the direct mail piece and vice versa. If you cannot afford to do a direct mail piece or are pressed for time, make sure you mention the campaign on your web site, on social media, and in any newsletter that goes out before December 31.

 

B.     Clean up your mailing lists


  1. Size up your mailing lists--Take a hard look at both your email and regular mailing lists.  Determine which one is larger, fresher or more complete.  Ideally, you will use both for your year-end campaign: see calendar in our blog post on Friday.   
  2. Segment your mailing list—Copy your entire existing mailing list (including lapsed members), and make a new copy called 2012 End Of Year Mailing.  Color-code everyone who pledges, if you use that extraordinarily effective fundraising tool. Set the pledge list aside as we won’t be soliciting them for end of year gifts.  Go through the rest of the mailing list, and pick a different color for everyone who has given you more than $250 in the last three years from any source:  sponsorship, donation, grant, board gift, city official, even silent auction winner of the grand prize. We will call these people DONORS.  You will see names of board members, sponsors, foundation officers, the city officials etc. when you are color-coding them.  Take all the DONORS off the end of year mailing list, and put them in a special DONOR list.  These people need to be solicited in person, and not through direct mail or email.  We will discuss this process later in this post. Count how many names are on the DONOR List and on the end of year mailing list.
  3. Personalize your email list—Look at your email list, and determine how many first and last names you have associated with your email addresses, so you can personalize any solicitation.  See if you can add more names to the personalized list, such as .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address) would be obvious. Count how many emails you have with names and with no names. If you don’t have a name, then you can use Dear Friend for your solicitation, but try to keep this to a minimum.  If you need advice about what email broadcast tool to use, Idealware has done the research for you. http://www.idealware.org/articles/fgt_email_newsletter_tools.php
  4. Clean up your mailing list—Look for duplicates but make sure you copy information onto the appropriate record before you delete any duplicates.
  5. Clean up your email list and add new names, addresses—Purge the hard bounces from your email list.  Determine how many soft bounces you have, and clean those that have bounced twice.  Add any new members to your email list from raffle tickets, signup sheets from events, and other sources.    

 

 C.     Take online gifts, your website’s Donate Now button and your home page


  1. Make sure you have the ability to take online gifts on your web site—Use Donate Now, Network for Good, PayPal or other service.  Idealware has a great blog post about various online donation services http://www.idealware.org/articles/few-good-online-donations-tools.  Make it easy to give. Talk to your webmaster and add this functionality today.
  2. Put the Donate Now button on your home page—Can you easily find where to click to donate? Make the button red or green and easy to see.
  3. Make the Donate Now button BIG—Make sure the Donate Now button is easy to spot and not just a link to a place further into your web page.  Network for Good wrote an excellent blog post about making the most of your donation page.  Check it out here. http://www.fundraising123.org/article/your-online-donation-page-ready-2011?utm_source=tips&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=YearEnd&mkt_tok=3RkMMJWWfF9wsRons67IZKXonjHpfsX56u4uXKWg38431UFwdcjKPmjr1YIGT8t0dvycMRAVF

 

 D.    Test your donation page now


  1. Test Your Donation Landing Pages--Alia Mckee at Sea Change Strategies suggeststhat you test your donation page now, before you start your campaign.  She recommends that you give two of your friends $10 and ask them to donate that money on your website.[10] Have your friends try it and provide brutal feedback.  Is it easy to find the Donate Now button?  Does the information you are collecting make sense?  Were there any glitches? Any frustrations?  Did they get a thank you email immediately? You have time now to fix any of these problems before you send out your appeal.  Fix problems now.  If it is not easy, your supporters may decide to give elsewhere.  
  2. Make it easy to give—Not everyone wants to donate online, and we learned that almost 80% of all donations are still checks, so make it easy.  Make sure you have your organization’s address on all correspondence so that people can send a check.  If you send out a direct mail piece, include a reply envelope, perhaps a green one (for money) as MainStreet Libertyville (IL) has for several years. See how they increased their membership to $80,000 in one campaign in the September-October 2010 issue “Make Your Case: Triple Your Members!” in Main Street Now http://www.heritageconsultinginc.com/index.php?/main/downtown-revitalization-project-detail/see-all-5-articles-in-main-street-now-by-donna-ann-harris.  Consider using an envelope imprinted with a business reply mail (BRM) indicia from the post office and just pay for postage when the donor sends the envelope back (a yearly fee applies). Learn more http://pe.usps.gov/text/qsg300/Q505.htm#1022485.

 

E.     Revise your giving levels, ask for recurring gifts, create simple forms


  1. Make the donation form simple--Do not ask for more information than you need, and keep the form simple.  Is it easy to enter your billing information?  Easy  to set up a recurring payment or to enter a message if you are making a contribution  in someone else’s honor?  Consider adding one photo and a caption on the form describing a specific reason to donate—such as:  help us maintain our award winning flower baskets downtown.
  2. Link to the Donate Now button page only—Your direct mail letters and e-newsletter messages should link to your website, but go directly to donation page.  Don’t have them land on any other page. The call to action should be clear!  DONATE.

 

 F.     Compelling stories, photos and letters and the weekly countdown


  1. Write your first appeal letter today--Write it now.  Include one story, a compelling quote and some amazing statistics from this year. Longer letters—two to four pages-- work better according to fundraising authorities.  If you are sending a direct mail piece, plan a day for volunteers and staff members to personalize letters in advance of your mail date if you are able. This also creates a connection with the potential donor.
  2. Write a compelling story—Here is an outline for your letter.  Show your donors why your work in downtown is relevant and important to them and why they should care.  Ask them to contribute in the first line of the second or third paragraph. Tell them what you have done in the last year downtown, and what your plans are for the coming year.  Show how their gifts to you make a difference.  Tell your supporters that the tax deductibility deadline is near and ask them again to make a gift in the last paragraph. Create a deadline.  Do not tell donors that you need to end the year in the black, because it is just not a compelling reason.  Explaining that their gift goes toward general operating expenses is unappealing.  Instead, year-end campaigns should focus on specific but general programs that are helping you meet your Mission, such as event programming, watering flower baskets, keeping downtown clean, installing colorful banners, or hosting your monthly downtown event, the Farmers market or other much-loved seasonal events. Seek unrestricted gifts if at all possible, rather than gifts aimed at projects. A great blog post about LONGER letters and why they work was posted on Guidestar.com see it here http://www.guidestar.org/rxa/news/articles/2012/why-long-fundraising-letters-outpull-shorter-ones.aspx?hq_e=el&hq_m=1858226&hq_l=16&hq_v=bed1c6047b
  3. Make your impact clear--Use colorful charts and graphs showing your impact on downtown in your letter and on e-newsletters.  Use your reinvestment stats to impress. Show people in photos in your letter and e-newsletters, not just empty streets and buildings.
  4. Create a handsome letter—Your letter does not even have to be a traditional letter.  Use a photo or two to show an important downtown project completed this year.  Personalize the letter with the person’s name with mail merge or the newsletter program.  Make it seasonal, and celebrate holidays. We offer suggestions about when to send these letters and emails in our next blog post on Friday.

 

G.    Thank you, thank you, thank you


  1. Write a thank you letter now—Everyone who gives a gift, whether by check or online, should get a paper thank you letter.  Online givers should get a heartfelt written thank you letter that does not look or sound like a receipt, within a week.
  2. Three times, three ways—Resolve to thank your donor at least three times - when they complete a donation, when they get your email receipt, and when they get your full thank-you in the mail within a week.Find a volunteer to send out your thank you letters once a week during the last six weeks of the year, so you can meet this promise.

 

 H.    Automate and Tweet about it


  1. Automate thank you emails—Send an immediate thank you email shortly after receiving the gift.  You can allow the donor to return to the home page or sign up for your blog, after they make their gift.  Make sure the donation experience is quick and easy and gives the donor more information about your downtown organization.
  2. Tweet about it--Once your donor has made a donation, make it easy for them to Tweet about it or post to the donor’s Facebook page through links on the Thank You page or on your organization’s website. Install links to Facebook and Twitter on the automated thank you page.  Giving donors the option to talk about their involvement with the downtown organization can help spread your message through the donor’s social network. It might bring more donations from their friends.
  3. Send hand written thank you cards to the 2012 DONOR list and make appointments—Send these thank you cards out during Thanksgiving week, and prepare to divide up the personal contacts between Board members and key committee chairs.  Start making calls for appointments the Monday after Thanksgiving to talk about the year-end campaign with these, your most invested friends and ask them to make a year-end gift. Your most important donors should not be getting a direct mail letter or e-blasts. They need to be contacted in person.

 

I.      Reinforce your campaign with traditional PR, matching gifts and donor lists


  1. Use other PR tools to reinforce your relevance this season--Does the community know what you accomplished this year?  Use other PR tools to help raise awareness about your program.  Speak to civic groups. Hang a banner on your building or across the street if permitted about the holiday campaign.  Write a press release, especially to local papers.  Send an e-alert or special mini-newsletter about your campaign to your mailing lists.
  2. Matching gifts are highly appealing—Ask your Board to consider making additional gifts just for the year-end appeal to match any new or increased donations during the campaign.  You may find that donors might be willing to give again if they know their gift will double (or triple) their gift.  Others love to come in at the last minute to get the group over the top and meet their goal.  Keep your web site up to date on your campaign progress and your gifts to date.
  3. List your donors--Everyone want to see their name on a good list, and do not want to be absent.  Put “List in formation” at the bottom so everyone knows you are still accepting gifts.  Make it clear on the web site if your goal is met.  Publish the list of year-end donors in the next newsletter that goes out, or do an e-blast to everyone in January.

 

 J.      Don’t take Christmas week off


  1. Make sure your office is open between Christmas and New Years—The flood of gifts come in the crush before New Year’s Eve.  If you are not open, answering the phone, or opening the mail (and making bank deposits), you will miss out!  Email gifts will come in at the very last minute, so automating thank you letters helps.  The IRS permits mailed gifts to be postmarked by December 31 to be considered in that tax year. Make sure you communicate this to your accountant and date the thank you letter appropriately. See IRS Publication 526 for more information on delivery issues for donations. [13]
  2. Celebrate! and then take a vacation!—You and your team have earned a rest after a successful venture.If you are conducting this campaign entirely by online and social media tools, tell everyone about the results of your campaign the week after New Year’s Day.  Send a note or newsletter with your successes to your entire list.  This may pry lose some additional donations in the new year. Take a few days to recover, and start the New Year knowing that you’ve started 2013 with a good cushion from your year-end fundraising efforts.

We hope this guide was helpful. Look for the third and final post in this series later this week. What other tips can you think of to raise more money at the end of the year?  Share your thoughts in the comments.

 

 

Year End Fundraising Plan—Your Calendar for Success-- last in a series of 3 blog posts

 

 

In this blog series, we have described why downtown organizations should undertake year-end fundraising, especially if they can do a multi-channel effort using a variety of online and off line communication media.  to reach their core constituents. 

This post will detail three alternate fundraising plans you can use depending on the time you have to devote to fundraising in this busy time of the year for any downtown organization.  We supply a color-coded calendar of November and December to show you how to organize for these various appeals.  These three appeals are:

  1. Multi-Channel Appeal (BOLD, ITALICS and BOLD & ITALICS deadlines )
  1. Online Only Appeal (ITALICS and BOLD & ITALICS deadlines)
  1. Last Week Appeal (BOLD & ITALICS only deadlines)

You pick which appeal works for you based on timing, your access to volunteers and the costs to implement. However, read about all of them, and then decide what you can do.

 

Timing


December 31, traditionally the single biggest day for online giving, falls on a Monday this year.  Many people will take New Year’s Eve day off to make a long weekend, especially those who work in government or larger businesses.  Therefore, you must send your final emails to these people on Wednesday December 26 and again Friday December 28 in addition to New Year’s Eve, December 31.

The Network for Good says the peak giving time on that day is 11 a.m. to 6 p.m.  That is a huge number  of donations being given in a small window of time.  Your office should be open, at the computer, answering the phone, or opening the mail (and making bank deposits), or you will miss out!  Email gifts will come in at the very last minute, so automating thank you letters helps.  The IRS permits gifts postmarked by December 31 to be considered in that tax year.  Make sure you communicate this to your accountant and date the thank you letter appropriately. See IRS Publication 526 for more information on delivery issues for donations. [14]

 

How to use the calendar


The November and December calendars below (print them out in landscape format), are coded to show dates for direct mail and e-blasts.  BOLD are deadlines for direct mail letters.  ITALICS  are dates for e-blasts and social media posts (Facebook, Twitter). UNDERLINED are last week deadlines for sending the final three e-blast.

November 2012

 

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

 

 

 

 

1

2

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

5

6

7

8

9

 

 

Clean up mailing lists, Test donation page, fix it if needed

Contact mailing house, get prices & timing

Write direct mail letters, gather photos for all e-blasts

Set date/location  for signing party, make calls, get refreshments

Identify DONORS on mailing list, remove from list, create new one

 

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

 

 

Divide up list of DONORS for Board personal solicitation

Send thanks card to DONORS

“Signing party” for direct mail letters

Deliver signed letters to mail house

 

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

 

SEND FIRST DIRECT MAIL LETTER

Clean up email list

Write & test e-blast

THANKSGIVING

OFF

BLACK FRIDAY

Office Open

 

25

26

27

28

29

30

 

 

CYBER MONDAY

First E-blast and Social media posts

 

 

Send Thank you letters

 

 

 

December 2012

 

Sun

Mon

Tue

Wed

Thu

Fri

Sat

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

 

 

E-Blast, Social media posts

Progress report on DONOR contacts

Send Thank you letters

Write second direct mail letter

 

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

 

Remove names of those who gave from mail list, revise list,

E-Blast, Social media posts

Another “signing party”

Send Thank you letters

Deliver to mailing house

 

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

 

SEND SECOND DIRECT MAIL LETTER

E-blast, Social media posts

Progress report on DONOR contacts

Send Thank you letters

 

 

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

 

Office Open

CHRISTMAS

OFF 

Office Open

E-Blast, Social media posts

Office Open

Send Thank you letters

Office Open

E-Blast, Social media posts

 

30

31

January 1

January 2

January 3

January 4

 

 

Office open NEW YEARS EVE

Last E-blast, social media posts

NEW YEARS DAY

OFF

 

E-blast, Social media posts with results of campaign

Celebrate with Board

 

 

Your Year-end Appeal


The Multi-Channel Appeal is the most comprehensive as it will use direct mail, e-newsletters, personal solicitation of donors, and reinforce the campaign with traditional public relations tools.  This effort has the most likelihood to raise the most money because your constituents will hear from you several times in different forms.  This appeal is the most expensive, and the most labor intensive, because we suggest that two direct mail appeals go out, one the week before Thanksgiving and another during the week of December 10th. This appeal  includes the complete Online Only Appeal, which includes weekly e-blast newsletters for your campaign, and the Last Week Appeal, three e-blasts during the week between Christmas and New Years.  This appeal also makes a direct, personal approach to DONORS,  those who have donated or sponsored activities over $250.00 in the last several years.

 

If you choose the Multi-Channel Appeal, send direct mail pieces to your stakeholders for this campaign during the second week of November (our calendar shows the mailing going out on November 19).  Start your larger campaign by expressing thanks, but ask for a gift.  Your direct mail piece should have some photos and text to describe how your organization is thankful for the support from donors over the past year.  You will be introducing your campaign here, but do it through a story about a beneficiary of your program, a new merchant, a shopper, a visitor or a group that benefits from your work.  Thank your donors for their past support and tell them about your end of year campaign and its goal and specific project, include a reply envelope.  Ask for a donation.  Make your ASK very clear.  Please give {insert $ ask} so that {result that gift will produce}.

 

Once you have received a gift, remove that person’s name from your mailing list.  Send a second letter if you have not heard from them the week of December 10 (we used December 10 on our calendar).  Include a reply envelope (or one with a business reply envelope) in both letters to make it easy for potential donors.  IRS says that postmarked by December 31 counts, but with FED EX and other delivery services, the gift  has to be delivered on December 31 to count for the current tax year.  

 

Starting after Thanksgiving, your Online Only Appeal begins when you send a weekly e-blast newsletter.  Feature  a different story each time from the eight you identified at the start of the campaign. You can reuse some of the material in your direct mail letter, but do not quote word for word.  Send these newsletters early in the day (between 9AM and 11AM) as Convio, a fundraising software company for nonprofits, says that email open rates decline significantly after lunch.[15] Send your e-blasts on a Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday.  On our calendar we picked Tuesday, but experiment with yours. Let us know what works best for you.

 

The OnLine Only Appeal also sends three final emails, on Wednesday December 26, on Friday December 28 and again on Monday December 31 for maximum impact.  Network for Good found that the last two days of the year generated more than one thirds of all online gifts in December.[16]  Keep your Facebook friends up to date on the campaign, too.  Post your e-blasts about your campaign on Facebook and Twitter when you send them out including the link to donate.  Better yet, automate them.  Include a clear call to action—Donate-- and a link to your Donate Now page in each of your messages.  Sending so many emails may sound excessive, but research has shown that more emails result in more donations.  Remember to remove those names who have sent you a gift from your email list.

 

The Last Week Appeal is for the true procrastinator.  If you do nothing else, consider sending emails to your entire email list asking for support during the week between Christmas and New Year’s Eve.  Some nonprofits do a count down every day with another email.  You might want to do less, but at least send three e-blasts, on Wednesday December 26, on Friday December 28, and another on Monday December 31 as a final reminder that you need to reach your goal that day.  In the last few days of the month, there is a true rush to make donations before the end of the tax year.  For December 31 send alast chance” reminder, tell folks how close you are to your goal.  If you have exceeded it, tell them the additional projects you can undertake with their support.

 

Showing progress on your appeal


Your web site’s home page is the best place to keep a daily record of your campaign’s progress.  You can use a traditional thermometer or other graphic device to show progress towards your goal for the campaign.  Telling potential donors how well you are doing toward your goal will be especially helpful for the second direct mail letter, as you ask people to help you to get over the top. Make sure you publish your list of all year-end donations soon after the end of the appeal. You can post on your web site, or in the next issue of your newsletter. Organize this list based on the giving levels, not alphabetically.

 

Tell us how you did


We are excited to know what you decided to do, and your successes in year-end fundraising.  Please share your thoughts in the comments below; they will help other downtown organizations in their own efforts. Good Luck!

 

This article was edited by Mary Ellen Hern.



[2] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[7] http://www.afpnet.org/Audiences/ReportsResearchDetail.cfm?itemnumber=4620  This is data from 2009, most recent available.



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